The Group A era, from the 1980s through to the 1990s, gave us a lot to be thankful for. On racetracks and rally special stages all over the world, fans were treated not only to some of the best racing ever seen, but afterwards, if they wished, they could drive the cars home. Not the racecars of course, but the sometimes-only-slightly-watered-down road-going variants that car manufacturers were required to put into production and market to people like you and me in order to meet their Group A racing homologation requirements. Group A gave us the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth, the BMW M3, the Subaru Impreza WRX and the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution among many others. Group A also gave us the BNR32 Nissan Skyline GT-R.
With a production car based racing heritage dating back to the legendary Hakosukas of the early ’70s, Nissan didn’t rest on its laurels when it revived the hallowed ‘GT-R’ grade for its new 1989 Skyline. Instead, it pooled talent from around the world and created (arguably) the greatest Group A touring car of them all.
The fire-breathing Group A GT-R was based on the BNR32 Skyline’s ‘Evolution’ version – aka the 1990 NISMO-spec GT-R. A minimum of 500 road cars were required for homologation, but all-told 560 cars were produced in the specification: 500 for public consumption and 60 for competition use.
The NISMO variant allowed Nissan to homologate a number of different parts over and above the run-of-the-mill Skyline GT-R, as well as creating a specification more suited to a competition base. The car received intercooler cooling ducts in the front bumper and a NISMO body kit that included a subtle hood lip spoiler, side skirts and a small trunk spoiler below the rear wing. The factory T25 turbos also had their ceramic compressor wheels replaced with steel items in preparation for more boost. But it wasn’t all gains. In its spec form the NISMO lost ABS, air-conditioning, its rear screen wiper, intercooler mesh and some weight.
Although their silhouettes were the same, the NISMO road car and the Group A race car were two very different machines. As Nissan’s official motorsport arm, NISMO ran the Group A operation out of Japan where it designed the GT-R’s racing specification and prepared cars (including the iconic Calsonic GT-R) for local Group A-based competition. Right from the get-go Nissan had planned to campaign the new car new in Australia, as it had done with previous models including the Bluebird Turbo (from the early ’80s Group C era) and both the DR30 and HR31 Skylines. The Skylines had both been run on behalf of Nissan by Australian race driver Fred Gibson, who had taken over the local Nissan Motor Sport operation in 1986 and renamed it Gibson Motorsport. Given the success he had with the Skylines – especially the HR31, which ran for three seasons – it was a no-brainer that Gibson Motorsport should manage the Nissan’s Group A GT-R works programme down under.
From 1990 through to 1992 five cars were prepared in Australia. This particular one, chassis #5, was the last Gibson car built and the most famous. Even though both the Japanese and Australia Group A cars were cut from the same cloth and the teams worked closely with each other on R&D, in many respects the cars differed in specification and look. Their goals were the same though: Group A domination.
For competition use the NISMO-developed Group A-spec RB26DETT was reworked with a strengthened engine block and race-grade internals, and fitted with upgraded ancillaries. Gibson Motorsport’s version was both powerful and beautiful.
In their original race trim, with close to 30psi (2.0kg/cm2) of boost running through their veins, the Gibson GT-Rs output an easy 600hp (450kW). And that, coupled with their purpose-tuned ATTESA E-TS four-wheel-drive system, equipped the cars with decimating performance. Graphic illustration of that came a 1990 Tooheys 1000 at Bathurst, when after dismally qualifying in 11th, the Mark Skaife/Jim Richards entry had moved up to eighth by the end of lap one, and by lap 10 it was leading. In the latter move Richards waved to Klaus Niedzwiedz (ANZ Ford Sierra Cosworth RS500) as he squeezed on the gas pedal and powered by up Mountain Straight. By lap 20 the GT-R had a 20-second stretch on the field.
No prizes for guessing then that the Skyline GT-R was the Group A machine that all others were measured against, both in Australia and abroad where NISMO-prepared cars were enjoying similar success. In what is essentially a production car-based form of circuit racing, there’s only so long that you can get away with that sort of thing though, and for the Gibson Motorsport team having weight and power restrictions thrown at them for the ’92 season came as little surprise. Power output was addressed through the use of a boost pressure limiting pop-off valve that was required to be attached to the engine’s intake manifold and then sealed by championship officials so it’s setting couldn’t be tampered with. If you’re familiar with turbo IndyCar engines you’ll probably recognize this type of device.
With the boost restrictor in place peak output dropped to around 470hp (350kW), but even with extra ballast on board to bring them up to their redefined race weight the GT-Rs kept winning.
Which team built the better GT-R: Australia’s Gibson Motorsport or Japan’s NISMO works team, is often a point of discussion among afficionados of Nissan’s Group A glory days. Both teams had so much to do with each other – NISMO supplying the base package to begin with and Gibson’s team fine-tuning the set up – that it’s much easier to just celebrate their individual successes in what were two very different championships. There’s absolutely no disputing the fact that Gibson Motorsport knew how to prepare a race car, though – both in the way it performed on race day and how it was presented. That’s evidenced by the spectacular dual dry-break fuel system in the trunk; a set-up unique to the Aussie Group A GT-Rs.
Although chassis #5 was completely restored by Fred Gibson after its retirement from racing, it was as polished to perfection during its racing life as it is now. It’s inch-perfect original too, right down to the early ’90s laptop computer and software used to tune the Electramotive (USA) engine management system.
I spent a lot of time gazing into the trunk, most likely with my mouth wide open.
It’s only when you get to witness up close the uncompromising level of detail that you start to understand and appreciate why each of these cars reputedly cost around $700,000 to build back in the early ’90s.
Given its level of performance and the fact that the car could – at Bathurst – hit 300kph (186mph) down Conrod Straight before taking The Chase sideways at 280kph (174mph), the Skyline’s roll-over protection seems rather stark by today’s standards.
But then again, its design as a racecar is 23 years old this year. I still think of the GT-R as a modern classic, but in reality it’s rapidly heading toward being an actual classic. Because of its racing pedigree and colorful history, this car’s already there and is currently valued at over $1,000,000.
It’s on the market too, I should add. After purchasing the car directly from Fred Gibson back in 2001, I’m sure its current owner will be very sad to see it go. It has to be said that Terry Ashwood has done an amazing job of looking after the car, while never shying away from an opportunity to get it out on the track.
It’s probably safe to say that many people will only remember the Gibson GT-Rs for the 1992 Bathurst 1000 incident. That event was marred with controversy when on lap 144 (less than 20 laps short of the full 1000km distance) a huge downpour sent cars still running on slick tires spearing off the track in all directions. The Winfield-sponsored GT-R of Skaife and Richards was no exception. Ford stalwart Dick Johnson crossed the finish line first in his Shell-sponsored Sierra RS500, but afterwards the race was counted back one lap, meaning the Gibson Motorsport entry – which had led for most of the day but left the track on the back of a tow truck – was still pronounced the winner.
In this clip from 2007 Jim Richards and Mark Skaife recount the infamous day at Bathurst. A second win on The Mountain by a Japanese car (the same pairing had claimed victory the year prior in the GT-R) was too much for the riled-up crowd that gathered beneath the winners’ podium, and although there wasn’t a riot, there very nearly could have been…
After winning the Australian Touring Car Championship for two years running, the ’92 Tooheys 1000 was ultimately the Group A GT-R’s last race in Australia. For 1993 the ATCC’s governing body turned the series on its head by effectively banning turbocharging and four-wheel-drive systems in favour of an exclusive GM-Holden (Commodore V8) and Ford (Falcon V8) series. According to CAMS the cost of the turbo car (which supposedly averaged out at more that $500K a piece) was the main factor in the decision, but it’s also reported that pressure had been applied by GM-Holden and Ford with indirect threats of abandonment if the new format wasn’t introduced. Consequently the GT-R dream was over for Fred Gibson, Jim Richards and Mark Skaife.
Regardless of CAMS’ decision, by ’94 the Group A circuit racing era had all but come to an end. It’s been a GM-Holden versus Ford battle ever since, but coincidently that’s all about to change when the 2013 V8 Supercar season kicks off in two weeks time. Nissan is back in the fold and Mercedes-Benz has joined the party too. But with control chassis across the board and naturally aspirated V8s the only accepted engines, it’s not quite the same. The Group A GT-R may be gone, but I very much doubt it’ll ever be forgotten.
Gibson Motorsport BNR32 Nissan Skyline GT-R Group A
Engine: Nissan Group A-spec RB26DETT, 2.6L DOHC 24V inline-six, twin Garrett T25 turbochargers
Driveline: Holinger 6-speed H-pattern dog box, tuned ATTESA E-TS
Power: 600hp (470hp with boost pressure restriction in ’92)
0-60mph: 3 seconds
Standing 1/4 mile: 10.99 seconds
A heads up to everyone out there that cares about these GMS cars; sad news and a scene request to be vigilant about anyone trying to palm off 'collectable' parts.
Was so unfair of the rule changes, but that always seems to happen around the world in different series.
Yeah, Ford as allways is changing the rule to win. Never like the big bore V8 racing and if Nissan is entering, that's not gonna change enything.
In 2013, is STUPID to stick to this rule anymore. In this time of eco friendly engines and big taxes on big engine, a time when almost every engine is turbocharged or will be turbocherged, when displacement is smaller and smaller....it's a shame that aussie's will stick with big engine racing cars. They will become to drive the future Mad Max cars after all.
Awesome car, and a nicely detailed article as usual, Brad. I'll be on the lookout for a 1:18 scale version of this car soon.
I remember watching the 91 and 92 Bathurst races as a child. I saw this in persos last year and it is as clean and polished as in the pictures. Thankyou for sharing the story.
Great story. And now I know more about this car.
I also know that the white Bluebird the GT-R is passing is also famous.
Thanks for the info on this famous car.
thanks for posting
just one correction: it was the turbine wheels that were replaced, not the compressor.
i live to see skylines embarrass cars with bigger engines and rediculous price tags, but more so i live to see skylines dominate every class and every race they're placed in. actually, they should have their own class. period.
Great timing on this one Brad, i'm in the middle of watching the 92 race at the moment on dvd as I wasn't in the right part of the world back in the early 90's. Have been trying to find out more info on this car but it's slim pickings.
WRX's and Evo's from Group A though, thats news to me!
Beautiful racecar. I still cringe a little every time I watch the footage of the car sliding off the track after Forest Elbow in '92. Incidentally, Evo magazine have just published a video of Richard Meaden's brief drive of the Calsonic R32 GT-R in Japan. Worth a look: http://www.evo.co.uk/videos/planetevovideos/288019/calsonic_r32_nissan_skyline_gtr_video_review.html
Greatest Group A car ever and the actual car the Australia commentors first dubbed Godzilla. Not sure if it will be there, but hope to see it in anger at Phillip Island Classic in March.
....has motivated me to fire up the GTR for the first time in month and scare a few 'eights'.
possibly the greatest racecar ever built. sucha shame its dominance isn't well known overseas. Thanks for the great article Brad
what an awesome car.
Makes it all the more amazing that regular BNR32's are still so affordable in Australia..
As much as I would like to see THAT Bathurst win go to the rightful winner, this car brings me back to a great place in the lounge room watching Bathurst with my Dad and his friends. Beautiful car that is deserving of all the accolades.
Thank you for posting cars like this.
Interesting, I didn't know Electramotive (later Nissan Performance Technology Incorporated) did the ECU mapping. They used to handle Nissan Z cars, ZX-Turbo and NPT-90 racing in the IMSA GTO and GTP. An extremely professional team no doubt.
In an interview with Fred Gibson, after getting prepared to run in a race at Fuji the NISMO management called Fred and asked politely if they could not come to japan due to the Gibson cars being quicker and potentially damaging the relationship with them and the teams they supplied
Jim Richards calling the the booing crowd a "pack of assholes" is still one of the awesomer moments of Australian motorsport history =P
damn those brakes mean business.
whenever i see the word godzilla i think of http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BG0z_EALv6U
There have been an awful lot of ridiculously sweet cars on Speedhunters, but for some reason this just ticks every single box more so than any car I've seen for a long while.
Good read, and nice to have a history lesson for the uninformed like myself!
@macgillaz Bad news, but so lucky the car wasn't inside! Being a GMS car that one's just as beautiful as the Winfield machine too..
@KiwiMotoring Thanks. I wouldn't mind one of those too!
@jzx81 You're right, I think there may have only been 3 or 4 of those Group C Bluebirds in the early '80s for the Australian Touring Car Championship. They were weapons too! It was very cool to see that car (the first Datsun/Nissan to race in the ATCC) out on the track with the last one..
@black bnr32 Woops.. thanks for the correction!
@Gareth36 You have the '92 race on DVD? Where did you find it? My VHS copy I recorded live is so worn that you can barely see or hear a thing!
@JackOlson Agreed, it's my dream car
@dneg TRY 1.3MIL.
@izzy_ortiz Grab a dvd of the 2010 muscle car masters, at the end there is some in car work of Terry Ashwood driving this car (his car)
@RdS2 not if you wanted one when they were racing, 110k in '91 put it on par with a 911 turbo
@rhysyeomans It already went to the rightful winner. The car lead pretty much the whole race and was in the lead one lap before the flag. By all rights and rules, the right winner has already been picked.
@rhysyeomans FIA (and afaik most other governing bodies) rules stated then (and still do now) that should the race be stopped the results are taken from the order the cars crossed the line on the last full lap completed.
So the victory was awarded to the rightful winner.
It has to be that way, otherwise if it was the order the cars crossed the line after the race had been red flagged, then you would have cars still racing after it had been deemed too dangerous to continue.
The ECU was one of the changes the GMS team made from the Nissan/NISMO Group A specification, so the Japanese cars ran something else. I didn't know that Electramotive was a Nissan specialist, but that makes sense why GMS looked them. Thanks for that info!
@777 Yeah, I had to wait twenty years but I am greedy so I bought two! A 1990 and a 1994 V Spec II.
Total cost $50000.